Elderly and disabled people currently pay flat rate contributions of £2.40 for hot meals and £2.30 for frozen meals.
Under the proposals, the charges will increase to £4.44 and £2.52 respectively, which will reflect the actual costs of the meals.
A public consultation on the changes came to an end on December 31, and now the views of service users and their families will be gathered into a report for cabinet.
If cabinet members approve the proposals, pensioners and disabled people could face the higher charges as early as June.
Around 2,000 residents in Staffordshire currently receive meals on wheels.
Andy Day, co-ordinator at North Staffs Pensioner Convention, believes the price rise will hit some of the most vulnerable people in society.
He said: "We very much hope the county council does not withdraw this support for the meals on wheels service.
"Many elderly people are on tight incomes, and so a substantial increase such as this will deter many from using the service.
"Those who receive meals on wheels will have been assessed by social workers, and so would already be considered frail and vulnerable.
"We hear about elderly people arriving in hospital who are severely malnourished. The county council's proposals could see more people end up in that state."
Peter Bullock, chief executive of Age UK North Staffordshire, said: "Increases in charges for meals on wheels may lead to older people feeling that they must order fewer meals, or even that they can no longer afford the service at all.
"Either way, these decisions could have profound effects on the health and wellbeing of disadvantaged older people."
Charges for meals provided by lunch clubs could also change.
Lunch club members currently pay a flat rate of £2.90, but if the subsidy is cut this is likely to increase. The exact amount will vary from club to club.
There are no plans to increase the charge for meals and refreshments provided at council-run day centres, which currently stands at £4.75 a day.
Other proposed changes include extending free after-hospital care from six to 12 weeks, the introduction of charges for home care above 10 hours a week, and varying fees for respite care.
Around 8,000 people who currently pay for their social care could face higher fees.
A spokesman for the county council said: "The consultation ended at 4.30pm on New Year's Eve, and now all the information from the consultation events, emails and written forms will be collated.
"A report on the proposals will then be prepared for the cabinet meeting in February."